Egypt and Israel have had a complex relationship since the 1979 peace treaty was signed. Since then, there have been numerous agreements, negotiations, and disputes between the two nations. As a professional, I have analyzed the topic and prepared a framework of the agreements between Egypt and Israel.
1. Peace Treaty of 1979: The treaty was signed in Washington D.C., and it ended the state of war between Egypt and Israel. The treaty also facilitated the normalization of relations between the two countries, including the establishment of diplomatic relations and the exchange of ambassadors.
2. Security Arrangements: The peace treaty included a security annex that established a demilitarized zone in the Sinai Peninsula. It also established a multinational force, which included American, French, and Italian troops, to monitor compliance with the agreement.
3. Economic Cooperation: The peace treaty encouraged economic cooperation between Egypt and Israel. The two nations signed an agreement that established a joint economic committee to promote trade and investment.
4. Water Resources: One of the most important issues between Egypt and Israel is water resources. The two countries signed an agreement in 1980 that set out principles for sharing the water of the Nile River. Egypt is heavily dependent on the Nile for agriculture, and Israel is dependent on the river for drinking water.
5. Gas Deal: In 2019, Egypt and Israel signed a $15 billion deal to export natural gas from Israel to Egypt. This marked a significant step in the economic cooperation between the two nations.
6. Border Disputes: Despite the peace treaty, border disputes between Egypt and Israel have remained unresolved. The two nations have had several disputes over the Taba region and the Red Sea border.
7. Palestinian Issue: The Palestinian issue has been a source of tension between Egypt and Israel. Egypt has traditionally been a supporter of the Palestinian cause, while Israel has been an opponent of a Palestinian state.
The framework above provides an overview of the agreements between Egypt and Israel. The peace treaty of 1979 remains the cornerstone of the relationship between the two nations. Despite border disputes and disagreements over the Palestinian issue, the two nations have managed to maintain diplomatic relations and work towards economic cooperation.